Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies

Cover of: Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains |

Published by U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, For sale by the U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services in Reston, Va, Denver, CO .

Written in English

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  • Debris avalanches,
  • Lahars,
  • Catastrophes (Geology)

Edition Notes

Book details

Statementby Kevin M. Scott ... [et al.]
SeriesU.S. Geological Survey professional paper -- 1630
ContributionsScott, Kevin M., 1935-, Geological Survey (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Paginationv, 59 p. :
Number of Pages59
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14532050M
LC Control Number2001058484

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Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: mobility, hazard assessment and mitigation strategies Professional Paper By: Kevin M. Scott, Jose Luis Macias, Jose Antonio Naranjo, Sergio Rodriguez, and John P.

McGeehin. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: Mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies Article (PDF Available) in USGS professional paper.

Get this from a library. Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies. [Kevin M Scott; Geological Survey (U.S.);]. Pierson, T.C. () Transformation of a water flood to debris flood to debris flow following the eruption-triggered transient-lake breakout from the crater on Ma In: T.C.

Pierson (ed.), Hydrologic Consequences of Hot-rock/Snowpack Interactions at Mount St. Helens Volcano, –84 (pp. 19–36).Cited by: Scott KM, Macias JL, Vallance JW, Naranjo JA, Rodriguez-Elizarraras SR, McGeehin JP () Catastrophic debris flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains: mobility, hazard assessment, and mitigation strategies.

US Geological Author: David B. Hacker, Peter D. Rowley, Robert F. Biek. Sign in to like videos, comment, and subscribe.

Sign in. Watch Queue Queue. The youngest volcanic debris flow deposit is interpreted to be associated with the last known volcanic eruption, calendar (cal) years BP. The. The foreground hills are part of the Shasta Valley debris avalanche deposit produced by one of the largest known Quaternary volcanic landslides.

Roughly 46 km3 of an ancestral Mount Shasta collapsed aboutyear ago, producing a massive debris avalanche that swept some 50 km to the north, filling the broad Shasta Valley with hummocky debris.

Landslides at volcanoes share many of the attributes of landslides in nonvolcanic terrain. The similarity of morphology and texture of many volcaniclastic deposits extending beyond the flanks of volcanoes with those of landslide deposits in other mountainous terrain led to the relatively recent recognition that these major mass movements are also common at volcanoes.

The Orphan tsunami of Japanese clues to a parent earthquake in North America; Second edition = Dai 2-han. Second edition = 第2版. - Reston, Va.: U.S. Geological Survey ; Seattle: in association with University of Washington Press,   Volcanic flows and mudslides are examples of what geoscientists call "gravity currents." According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "landslides and debris flows result in 25 to.

The term landslide or less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows, and debris ides occur in a variety of environments, characterized by either steep or gentle slope gradients, from mountain ranges to coastal cliffs or even underwater, in which case they.

Landslides are common on tall, steep, and weak volcanic cones. Debris avalanche deposit view from the northwest of Mount St.

Helens after the eruption. The landslide scarp, horseshoe-shaped crater top right, exposes the vent and opens to the north. Hummocks on West Island, Alaska, 8 km (5 mi) WNW from Augustine Volcano summit. These. Pyroclastic flows are amalgamations of ash, lava, rocks, and gas that come barreling down volcanic mountains either during an eruption or when a volcano's dome collapses.

Setting off landslides is just one of the threats they pose to human life. Animation compares debris flows and landslides. Graphics Reporting by Ron Lin, Rosanna Xia and Raoul Rañoa. Animation by Raoul Rañoa. LANDSLIDES AND DEBRIS FLOWS October A landslide is a mass movement of rock, soil, and debris down a slope.

In steep terrain, even a small mass movement can transform into a larger, especially dangerous type of landslide. These catastrophic landslides commonly are referred to as debris flows, mudslides, mudflows, debris torrents or shallow. Flows are landslides that involve the movement of material down a slope in the form of a fluid.

When material on a slope becomes saturated with water, making it much heavier, it may develop into a debris flow or mud flow. The flow of material, a slurry of rock and mud, may pick up trees, cars and even houses. The most dangerous landslides are debris fl ows where slope material becomes saturated with water resulting in a slurry of rock and mud picking up trees, houses, and cars, thus, at times, blocking bridges and tributaries, causing fl ooding along its path.

IMPACTS. Landslides, debris fl ows, and other forms of ground failure affect communities. The occurrence of the sector collapse and debris avalanche at Mount St. Helens triggered the recognition of uniquely hummocky deposits of many analogous debris avalanches at volcanoes worldwide (Siebert,Ui et al.,Siebert et al.,Vallance et al.,Francis and Wells, ).Subsequent studies revealed the occurrence of edifice collapses and Cited by: An average of people are killed by landslides each year in the United States.

The worldwide death toll per year due to landslides is in the thousands. Most landslide fatalities are from rock falls, debris flows, or volcanic debris flows (called lahars).

Twenty-three people were killed, at least injured, and more than homes were. Most volcanoes have landslides, and collapse to form a debris avalanche at least once during their lifetime, sometimes several times, and such events occur on all types of volcano, be they oceanic, continental, monogenetic, or polygenetic (Figure ).Landslides occur from volcanoes in all geodynamic contexts, including mid-ocean rifts, hot spots, arcs, and intraplate by: Start studying GEO CH Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Search. Browse. That the former mass contains pyroclastic debris from a volcanic eruption. One of the most problematic aspects of landslides is that large-scale, cataclysmic examples are the norm, whereas small-scale landslides are. Rockfall, landslides, debris flows.

Mass movements (gravitational natural hazards) are downslope directed displacements of solid and/or loose rocks as well as soil material.

As falling processes, they can occur quickly and suddenly. Landslides on. The valley of the Middle Fork Nooksack River (Fig. 1) has conveyed debris flows that on occasion run for tens of kilometers beyond their source rs for debris flows in the river drainage are volcanic activity, glacial outbursts, and gravity-induced landslides on Mount Baker, a m active stratovolcano in northwest Washington State.

Am I at risk. Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories and can be caused by a variety of things including earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, fire, and even construction. They are more common in mountain, canyon and coastal regions.

Fact Check 1. Which of the following is a warning sign of a landslide. Check all that apply. A volcanic hazard is any volcanic process that threatens life or destroys land or infrastructure.

A landslide is a mass movement of rock fragments, soil and debris downslope. The likelihood of a debris-flow in response to a given peak minute rainfall intensity are based upon a logistic regression approach, which combines the following two equations: (1) P = e x / (1 + e x) Where P is the probability of debris-flow occurrence in fractional form, and.

The maps below depict the likelihood of debris-flow generation and estimates of flow magnitude in locations where debris flows initiate. The models do not predict downstream impacts, potential debris-flow runout paths, and the areal extent of debris-flow or flood inundation. For information on what to do if you live in a recently-burned area where debris flows are possible, and there is.

A mudflow or mud flow is a form of mass wasting involving "very rapid to extremely rapid surging flow" of debris that has become partially or fully liquified by the addition of significant amounts of water to the source material. Mudflows contain a significant proportion of clay, which makes them more fluid than debris flows; thus, they are able to travel farther and across lower slope angles.

Catastrophic Debris Flows transformed from landslides in volcanic terrains. Continuum simulation of flow failures. Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, ().Author: Alison Hollomon Graettinger.

The term landslide includes a wide variety of mass movements that result in the downward and outward movement of slope forming materials like rocks, soils, artificial fills or any combination of these, under the influence of gravity. It is a geographical phenomenon, including wide range of ground movement, when the shear stress exceeds the shear strength of the materials.

Debris Flows are moving masses of loose mud, sand, soil, rock and water. Gifts That Rock - What are the most popular gift items in the store. Landslides A USGS fact sheet about landslides and events that trigger them. Yosemite Rockfall Photos A photo sequence of a rockfall and debris avalanche by Herb Dunn.

Essentially, there are two main types of volcanic landslide: lahars and debris avalanches, the largest of which are sometimes termed flank collapses.

An example of a lahar was seen at Mount St Helens during its catastrophic eruption on A landslide is a mass movement of material, such as rock, earth or debris, down the slope of a hill or cliff. They can happen suddenly or move slowly over long periods of time. Landslides are classified by their type of movement.

A debris avalanche is the sudden catastrophic collapse (landslide) from an unstable side of a volcano. Many volcanic cones are steep sided and unstable due to rapid growth of the cone. Rising magma, earthquakes, weakening due to hydrothermal alteration and heavy rain can trigger a debris avalanche of this unstable material.

If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider leaving if it is safe to do so. Remember that driving during an intense storm can be hazardous. If you remain at home, move to a second story if possible.

Staying out of the path of a landslide or debris flow saves lives. These volcanic debris flows (also known as lahars) reach great distances, once they leave the flanks of the volcano, and can damage structures in flat areas surrounding the volcanoes.

The eruption of Mount St. Helens, in Washington triggered a massive landslide on the north flank of the volcano, the largest landslide in recorded times. Landslides can be caused by natural incidents (earthquakes, storms, fires, or volcanoes) or human modification of land. In a landslide, masses of rock, earth, or debris move either slowly or rapidly, destroying property and possibly taking lives.

Landslides occur in all States and territories of the United States. volcanic hazards. They originate on volcano flanks and can surge tens or even hundreds of miles downstream from a volcano. A lahar is a flowing mixture of water-saturated debris that moves downslope.

Debris flows can include material varying in size from clay to blocks several tens of feet in size. When moving, they resemble masses of wet concrete. Estimates of the probability and volume of debris flows that may be produced by a storm in a recently burned area, using a model with characteristics related to basin shape, burn severity, soil properties, and rainfall.

Attribution: Natural Hazards, Landslide Hazards Program, Geologic Hazards Science Center. Date published: Ap. More than just volcanic eruptions Volcanic eruptions are a serious hazard.

But at many stratovolcanoes in Washington, Oregon, Northern California, and Alaska, landslides and debris flows can be just as dangerous. Some of these - especially volcanic mudflows (lahars) - are directly triggered by. Hiroshima landslides. On Wednesday, a suburb of Hiroshima in Japan was struck by a series of catastrophic rainfall-induced landslides, which resulted from a period of prolonged and exceptionally heavy rainfall.

These landslides are reported to have killed 39 people, with as many as a further 43 people reported to be missing.Start studying Impact of Volcanic Activity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Volcanic mud flows formed from mixture of volcanic debris and water.

Ejection of mass amount of volcanic debris into atmosphere can have massive effects ont eh global temperatures.

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